Anti-infectives include antibiotics and antibacterials, antifungals, antivirals and antiprotozoals. Antibiotics specifically treat infections caused by bacteria, most commonly used types of antibiotics are: Aminoglycosides, Penicillins, Fluoroquinolones, Cephalosporins, Macrolides, and Tetracyclines. Viral infections occur when viruses enter cells in the body and begin reproducing, often causing illness. Viruses are classified as DNA viruses or RNA viruses, RNA viruses include retroviruses, such as HIV.
The currently available antiviral drugs target 4 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, HIV and influenza viruses. Drug resistance in the clinical utility of antiviral drugs has raised an urgent need for developing new antiviral drugs. For maximal effectiveness of antibiotic therapy of orodental infections, several factors must be evaluated in choosing an antibiotic: (1) antibacterial spectrum and specificity of the agent; (2) degree of bacterial resistance reported for the antibiotic; (3) concentrations achieved at various sites; (4) age, type, and extent of infection; and (5) various host factors.


1.Montgomery EH, Kroeger DC.Dent Clin North Am. 1984 Jul;28(3):423-32.