The mononegaviral filovirus family (Mononegavirales: Filoviridae) includes three known genera: Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and Cuevavirus. All filoviruses contain seven genes. They are listed 3′ to 5′ in the negative-sense RNA genome, NP, VP35, VP40, GP, VP30, VP24, and L. The nucleoproteins (NP) of filoviruses are 692–749 amino acids long and are encoded in the first gene of the negative-sense genome. Viral protein 30 (VP30) plays an essential, though not fully understood, role in the filovirus life cycle. VP30 is unique to filoviruses, and unlike NP, VP35, and L, has no corresponding protein in the nucleocapsid of other mononegaviruses. VP35 is encoded by the genome’s second gene and is the equivalent of viral phosphoproteins (P) found in other mononegaviruses. The VP24 protein is important for assembly and function of the viral ribonucleoprotein complex and plays other roles as well. Viral Protein 40 (VP40) is the main structural component of the filovirion matrix, and the equivalent of the matrix (M) proteins found in other mononegaviruses. Filoviruses interact with the interferon (IFN) pathway, which is one of the best-studied antiviral host defense systems. Activation of the type I IFN signaling pathway leads to the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), the mediators of IFN-induced inhibition to pathogens.


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