Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) catalyses the formation of malonyl-CoA, an essential substrate for fatty acid synthesis in lipogenic tissues and a key regulatory molecule in muscle, brain and other tissues.ACC contributes importantly to the overall control of energy metabolism and has provided an important model to explore mechanisms of enzyme control and hormone action. Mammalian ACCs are multifunctional dimeric proteins (530–560 kDa) with the potential to further polymerize and engage in multiprotein complexes. The enzymatic properties of ACC are complex, especially considering the two active sites, essential catalytic biotin, the three-substrate reaction and effects of allosteric ligands. Eukaryotic acetyl-CoA carboxylases are large, homodimeric multienzymes. Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase occurs in two isoforms: the metabolic, cytosolic ACC1, and ACC2, which is anchored to the outer mitochondrial membrane and controls fatty acid β-oxidation.


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