The Oxtr gene is located on chromosome 3 (3p25–3p26x·2) as a 17-kb single-copy gene consisting of four exons and three introns. Common transcription factor binding sites in the rodent and human Oxtr promoter are SP1, TATA-like motif, an inverted GATA-1 motif, ERE (half or full), c-Myb binding domain, 11 CCAAT/enhancer binding protein   (C/EBP) sites, AP-1/2 sites, and 3 nuclear factor kappa B (NF- B) binding sites.In the mammalian brain, widespread OXTR expression and OXT binding to its receptor were described, although the OXTR seems to be generally expressed at rather low levels. The OXTR, a 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor capable of binding to either Gi or Gq proteins, activates a set of signaling cascades, such as the MAPK, PKC, PLC, or CaMK pathways, which converge on transcription factors like CREB or MEF-2. The various members of the OXT and vasopressin families are strongly involved in the regulation of stress- and anxiety-related responses, and in the regulation of these highly speciesspecific social behaviors. Their roles in facilitating social behaviors have been as evolutionary conserved as the molecular structure of the nonapeptides, their receptors, as well as the neuronal expression patterns within the brain.


1.Jurek B, Neumann ID. Physiol Rev. 2018;98(3):1805–1908.