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Neuropeptide Y Receptor

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid peptide which belongs to the so-called NPY family of biologically active peptides, together with two other members, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Originally NPY was isolated from brain extracts and found to be one of the most abundant neuropeptides within the brain. NPY has a pivotal role in many physiological functions such as food intake, energy homeostasis, circadian rhythm, and cognition. In addition, the peptide has been suggested to be a key component in the stress response, having anxiolytic properties. To date seven different Y receptors (Y1-Y8) have been described in vertebrates, of which up to 5 (Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5, y6) are present in mammals. While the Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptors are functional in all mammals, the y6 receptor is non-functional in several mammals including humans and has been lost in rats. The receptor originally identified as the Y3 receptor has been characterized as CXC chemokine receptor type 4 and is thus included in the chemokine receptor family. 
NPY shows strong affinity for the Y1, Y2 and Y5 receptor, while PP is the preferential agonist at the Y4 receptor. Like NPY itself, the Y1 and Y2 receptors are widely distributed throughout the brain. Brain areas expressing Y1 and Y2 receptor immunoreactivity include the frontal cortex, lateral septum, NAc, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, PVH, ARC, lateral hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, NTS and area postrema. In contrast, Y4 receptor expression is restricted to only a few brain regions including the medial preoptic area, PVH, NTS and area postrema. Finally, the Y5 receptor occurs in several limbic brain areas but is less abundant than the Y1 or Y2 receptor. Interestingly, Y5 receptor expression coincides in most cases with Y1 receptor expression, but not vice versa.

References

1.Reichmann F, Holzer P. Neuropeptides. 2016;55:99–109.