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Lysophospholipid Receptor

Lysophospholipids (LPs) such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are a class of bioactive lipids, which have a phosphate head group and a single fatty acyl chain attached to a 3-carbon backbone in their chemical structures. LPA and S1P are the best studied LPs and play pivotal roles in physiological events including cell proliferation, survival, motility, cytoskeletal changes, and electrophysiological changes as well as pathophysiological processes that include autoimmune disease, fibrotic disease, cancer, inflammation, bone diseases, pain, metabolic syndrome, infertility, and hair loss. LPs exert their effects by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are the largest membrane receptor family in the human genome and contain nearly 800 receptors (including olfactory receptors). There are currently six LPA (LPA1–6) and five S1P receptors (S1P1–5).

References

1.Kihara Y,et al. Exp Cell Res. 2015;333(2):171–177.